Some "intriguing theses on democracy from Jodi Dean":http://jdeanicite.typepad.com/i_cite/2009/11/if-democracy-is-to-come.html --even if she doesn't call them theses, I read them that way. For example, bq. Fourth, the production of democratic subjects is a challenge; if it has been done before, it has only been achieved temporarily. The production is neither certain, secure, nor robust. There are lots of glitches and faux democrats out there _on the market_. I agree with them for the most part, even if I don't see the requirement for the "Party" as she suggests in the comments...I rather take things from David Graeber's perspective that functioning democracies can exist without recourse to a Party structure; see his "_Fragments of an Anarchist Anthropology_":http://www.prickly-paradigm.com/paradigm14.pdf for some examples. While the obvious rejoinder to such a suggestion is, "How do things work at scale?", such a question presupposes _large-scale_ as a necessary condition. I don't think that is a requirement, but that is fodder for a much longer post.